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Synopsis : There is snow on the ground again this morning. Generally the winter wheat crop looks good. Cold temperatures persist so growth has been limited. Some nitrogen has been applied and most of the red clover is on the wheat. Corn acreage is expected to be similar to last year and soybeans will be up. Weed resistance continues to be a concern. Everyone needs to continue to scout for resistant weeds and manage accordingly. The acreage of Xtend soybeans will be up this year so careful application of dicamba will be critical.
Winter Wheat: Winter wheat acreage was 940,000 in 2017 and is estimated at 930,000 acres this year. At this point most of the winter wheat crop looks pretty good. The cold temperatures over the last few weeks have resulted in slow growth. Dale Cowan reported that Sept 29 planted wheat in Essex is at approximately 765 GDD and Oct 18 planted wheat is sitting at 457 GDD. The last week of February saw 63 GDD accumulated which is why the wheat began greened up. (It takes roughly 100 GDD to form a new leaf) Since that time we have barely accumulated 35 GDD. No wonder the wheat is not greening up!
Some frost heaving has been observed mainly in fields that were planted too shallow. Most of the wheat was planted early and developed a good root system and has 3 tillers. Frost heaving occurred . Water has been sitting in some fields so the wheat may not make it in those low lying areas. There is concern in the Niagara area that the wheat may not have come through the winter very well. In the last two weeks some nitrogen was applied to the winter wheat. Check wheat stands before applying N. The last of the red clover is going on now. Some fields were marked up putting the clover on. The per cent of winter wheat acres receiving red clover varies by region. In some areas it could be as high as 50% but many areas are likely 30 to 40 %. There did seem to be some more interest in red clover this year.
The cold spring temperatures will have slowed the mineralization of sulphur in the soil. It is being recommended to increase sulphur an extra 5 lbs on winter wheat to a total of 15 lbs/ac this spring. There was a question as to whether there was a difference in the effectiveness of the different sources of sulphur.
If anyone is interested in doing on farm-strip trials with sulphur in corn, soybeans or wheat to let Joanna Follings know Joanna.Follings@ontario.ca. A protocol will be shared so that there will be some consistency across sites.
Corn and Soybean Planting Intensions : The corn acreage for this year will likely be similar to last year or up slightly depending on weather. Soybean acres will be up. Amalgamations continue in the industry with Corteva (DowDupont) although the Pioneer brand will continue, Dow seeds will become the Brevant brand now. The Pioneer Chatham plant will be producing seed for both brands. Seed corn acreage will be down 15 to 20% this year as there was a big seed crop last year. Soybean seed acres are up by 10 to 15% this year and Pioneer is looking for more growers.
Weed Control: Chickweed is growing and should be sprayed soon. Canada fleabane is growing. Get out and scout those fields. The acreage of Xtend soybeans will be up this year. A high per cent of the acres west of London will be Xtend soybeans. There are several reasons for the increase in acreage of Xtend soybeans. Growers want the weed control and a lot of the new germ plasm includes the Xtend trait. There were very few problems with dicamba last year and it is hoped the same will hold true this year. The companies did lots of training of farmers on the proper application of dicamba. Their messages were to apply early and use it when appropriate. They also stressed using the right nozzles for application. If there is a delayed spring growers need to use the right rate. A higher rate may be needed along with a second mode of action for control. Infinity herbicide showed no negative impact on trials where a tillage radish cover crop was planted after winter wheat.
There is a lot of denial regarding resistance; more glyphosate is not the answer. There are farmers out there who are managing for resistance. The industry is putting a push on resistance management. There will be more to come next year.
Peter Sikkema’s research showed variable response of fleabane to dicamba in 2017 resulting in variable control. There was also a rate response to dicamba, 80% control at the 300g rate. At the half litre rate there was 95% control but it still didn’t kill some plants. He will continue to evaluate this. After fleabane had bolted they had trouble with control. Saflufenacil gives 20% better control of fleabane than 2, 4-D. Peter is starting a study looking at the best herbicides for glyphosate resistant fleabane control in corn, soybeans and wheat and asking companies to offer products that are comparable to the current best option.
Glyphosate resistant fleabane control, if the grower is not using Xtend soybeans then use glyphosate + Eragon + metribuzin + Merge on soybeans. Liberty soybeans , Reflex, 2,4-D in enlist soybeans are good options. In wheat, Infinity is the most effective at controlling Canada Fleabane. Pixxaro and 2,4-D ester can also provide good control. There are no restrictions on using the 2 group 14 herbicides. In corn, pre-emergence Integrity, Callisto, Aatrex 480, Battalion and Engenia/Xtendimax and post emergence Marksman, Engenia/Xtendimax, Pardner + Aatrex 480 and Distinct.
Acuron and Lumax applied pre-emergence has provided the most consistent control of glyphosate resistant waterhemp in corn. In soybeans Fierce is good but crop safety is a concern. The group 14 herbicides are more likely to cause crop injury when rainfall events occur after application. Authority Supreme is safer but less effective. Boundary is another option. 2 pass weed control is necessary as it keeps germinating throughout the season. Infinity is the best option in cereals.
Growers try to do 2 passes when should do 3 passes, resistant weeds take more effort and passes.
Sencor at the 3/8 rate on sand is not likely to cause injury. When glyphosate is sprayed at higher water volumes it reduces the efficacy. With more water there are more cations to tie up the glyphosate and a secondary factor is the dilution of adjuvents. To compensate for this increase the rate of herbicide. Do not use AMS with dicamba. There is no benefit of AMS with glyphosate either. Growers need to spray when the control is needed not when they want to i.e. spraying once instead of twice.Source : Field Crop News