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SHIC Continues on Emerging Disease Mission with Study on Canine Parvovirus 2 Spillover to Swine

A dead pig was submitted to the South Dakota State University Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (SDSU-ADRDL) in October 2020 for diagnostic testing. Moderate enteritis, hepatitis, and visceral edema along with hemolytic E. Coli were discovered as well as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Later, viral metagenomic sequencing was performed on archived lung tissue for an unrelated research project. Unexpectedly, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) was also identified. This finding led SDSU-ADRDL staff to ask for support from the Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) to study spillover of the virus from the canine species to swine; the investigation has begun. The specific goal of this project is to investigate the epidemiology of CPV2 in pigs and evaluate its pathogenesis in a colostrum deprived pig model.

Besides CPV2, which causes enteritis in dogs and myocarditis in puppies, the species includes feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), which causes severe enteritis and leukopenia in cats of all ages. CPV caused a worldwide pandemic in 1978 following a spillover event from FPV. Continued host switching with CPV has been documented, with spillover to wildlife including skunks, raccoons, and coyotes resulting in both clinical disease and asymptomatic infection. Determining the potential consequences for spillover from canines to swine will inform both diagnostic and prevention efforts for pork producers.

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