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Large Numbers of Fall Armyworm in Texas, Moths Appearing in Southern Kansas

By Anthony Zukoff

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, (Figure 1) is known to feed on over 80 host plants. In Kansas, it can damage several important crops as well as pasture, turf, and home landscaping. This insect does not overwinter in Kansas. Rather, it is native to the tropical regions of the western hemisphere and is active year-round along the gulf coast and southern Florida, migrating in from these locations each year. Two full generations are possible in Kansas with defoliation and grain damage being the biggest concerns.

Figure 1. Full grown fall armyworm caterpillar.

Figure 1. Full grown fall armyworm caterpillar. 

In late June, large numbers of fall armyworm were being recovered from pheromone traps in the Lubbock, Texas area and the Texas panhandle. The offspring from these large flights have been emerging and are continuing to move north. Fall armyworm adults were detected in southwest Kansas pheromone traps during the first week of July and trap numbers are beginning to increase. Adult moths are most likely active throughout the southern portion of the state.

Start scouting now

At-risk crops should be scouted regularly for the remainder of the growing season. Caterpillars increase in size at an exponential rate and a majority of feeding occurs during the later stage of development. It is critical to scout thoroughly and treat, if needed, before the caterpillars are over ½ inch long. Larger caterpillars are harder to control and do the most damage. Recommended thresholds and products labeled for control of fall armyworm caterpillars (Table 1) can be found below.

Fall armyworm thresholds

Alfalfa:  1-2 caterpillars per square foot can destroy seedling alfalfa. 10-15 per square foot can destroy 12” tall plants.

Corn:  damage to whorl stage in early summer; treatment may be needed if 75% of plants are damaged. Bt corn may prevent ear damage.

Sorghum:  damage to whorl stage in early summer; treatment may be needed if 75% of plants are damaged. 1-2 larvae/head during flowering to soft dough reduces yield 5-10%.

Wheat:  Larval “window-paning” (Figure 2) in early planted wheat can be a concern. If 25-30% of plants show damage, examine field frequently. Treat at 2-3 active larvae/ft.

Table 1. Registered products for the control of fall armyworm in Kansas crops. Always refer to the actual label on the product for more specific information relative to any insecticide.

Chemical Name

Trade Name

Mode of Action Class

Alfalfa

Corn

Sorghum

Wheat

alpha-cypermethrin

Fastac CS

3A

yes

yes

yes

yes

beta-cyfluthrin

Baythroid XL

3A

yes

yes

yes

yes

bifenthrin

numerous products

3A

 

yes

  

biological insecticide

Fawligen

-

  

yes

 

carbaryl

Sevin

1A

yes

   

chlorantraniliprole

Vantacore

28

 

yes

yes

yes

cyfluthrin

Tombstone

3A

yes

yes

  

deltamethrin

Delta Gold

3A

 

yes

yes

 

gamma-cyhalothrin

Proaxis

3A

yes

yes

yes

yes

indoxacarb

Steward EC

22A

 

yes

  

lambda-cyhalothrin+chlorantraniliprole

Besiege

3A+28

yes

yes

  

lambda-cyhalothrin

numerous products

3A

yes

yes

yes

yes

methomyl

Lannate

1A

yes

yes

yes

 

methoxyfenozide

Intrepid 2F

18

  

yes

 

permethrin

numerous products

3A

yes

   

spinosad

Blackhawk

5

 

yes

yes

yes

zeta-cypermethrin

Mustang MAXX

3A

yes

yes

yes

yes

zeta-cypermethrin+bifenthrin

Hero

3A

 

yes

  

Figure 2. Window-paning from young caterpillar feeding

Figure 2. Window-paning from young caterpillar feeding. 

Source : ksu.edu

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