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Neolithic Ceramics Reveal Dairy Processing From Milk Of Multiple Species

Neolithic Ceramics Reveal Dairy Processing From Milk Of Multiple Species

The research suggests that early farmers reduced the lactose content in milk by making it into cheese or other  products like yogurt, and used dairy products from a number of different animals, such as cows, sheep or goats.

The study is published in the Royal Society Open Science.

Lactose intolerance was a common condition in almost everyone in Europe during the Neolithic Period and until the Late Bronze Age when a genetic mutation became widespread, enabling adults to produce lactase, the enzyme which breaks down lactose in the body.

Researchers looked at the practice of dairy processing in the Late Neolithic, identifying high curd-content residues in pottery indicating cheesemaking, and revealing that multiple dairy species were utilized.

Dr. Harry Robson, from the Department of Archaeology at the University of York, said, "These results contribute significantly to our understanding of the use of dairy products by some of the earliest farmers of Central Europe.

"Whilst previous research has shown that  were widely available in some European regions during this period, here, for the first time, we have clear evidence for a diversified dairy herd, including cattle, sheep and goats, from the analysis of ceramics."

The scientists and archaeologists from the Universities of York, Cambridge, Toruń and Kraków used a multi-stranded proteomic and lipid-analysis approach to investigate ceramics and deposits on their surface, from the site of Sławęcinek in central Poland.

Evidence of multiple species used for cheesemaking was backed up by the presence of both cow and sheep or goat bones on the site."

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